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Accepted Scientific Name: Parodia ottonis (Lehm.) N.P.Taylor
Bradleya 5: 93. 1987
Origin and Habitat: Cordillera, and Misiones, Paraguay (Southern South America, Southern America)
Type locality: Barrero Grande = Eusebio Ayala
Altitude range: The species grows at low altitude (around 200 metres above sea level).
Habitat: Subtropical grasslands.
- Notocactus ottonis var. paraguayensis (Haage jr.) A.Berger ex Backeb.
Parodia ottonis (Lehm.) N.P.Taylor
Bradleya 5: 93. 1987
- Parodia ottonis (Lehm.) N.P.Taylor
- Cactus ottonis Lehm.
- Echinocactus ottonis (Lehm.) Link & Otto
- Malacocarpus ottonis (Lehm.) Britton & Rose
- Notocactus ottonis (Lehm.) A.Berger
- Peronocactus ottonis (Lehm.) Doweld
- Echinocactus ottonis var. pallidior Monv. ex Lem.
- Echinocactus ottonis var. spinosior Monv. ex Lem.
- Echinocactus tenuispinus var. minor Link & Otto
- Notocactus acutus F.Ritter
- Notocactus oxycostatus f. acutus (F.Ritter) N.Gerloff
- Notocactus arechavaletae (Speg. ex Arechav.) Herter
- Echinocactus acuatus var. arechavaletae K.Schum. ex Speg.
- Echinocactus arechavaletae Speg. ex Arechav.
- Malacocarpus arechavaletae (Speg. ex Arechav.) A.Berger
- Wigginsia arechavaletae (Speg. ex Arechav.) D.M.Porter
- Notocactus arechavaletae var. alacriportanus F.Ritter
- Notocactus arechavaletae var. aureus F.Ritter
- Notocactus ottonis f. aureus (F.Ritter) N.Gerloff & Neduchal
- Notocactus arechavaletae var. buenekeri F.Ritter
- Notocactus arechavaletae var. limiticola F.Ritter
- Notocactus arechavaletae var. nanus F.Ritter
- Notocactus arechavaletae var. rubescens F.Ritter
- Notocactus grandiensis Bergner
- Notocactus maldonadensis (Herter) Herter
- Echinocactus maldonadensis Herter
- Notocactus neo-ottoianus Y.Itô
- Notocactus ottonis var. acutangularis F.Ritter
- Notocactus ottonis var. albispinus Backeb.
- Notocactus ottonis var. elegans Backeb.
- Notocactus ottonis f. elegans (Backeb. & Voll) Havlíček
- Notocactus ottonis var. globularis (F.Ritter) Bergner
- Notocactus ottonis var. janousekianus K.Papoušek
- Notocactus ottonis var. nigrispinus H.D.Lück
- Notocactus ottonis var. paraguayensis (Haage jr.) A.Berger ex Backeb.
- Echinocactus ottonis var. paraguayensis Haage jr.
- Echinocactus ottonis f. paraguayensis (Haage jr.) Schelle
- Notocactus ottonis var. rubrispinus Prestlé
- Notocactus ottonis var. schuldtii Kreuz.
- Notocactus oxycostatus var. schuldtii (Kreuz.) N.Gerloff
- Notocactus ottonis var. stenogonus Backeb.
- Notocactus ottonis var. tenebrosus n.n.
- Notocactus ottonis var. tenuispinus (Link & Otto) Borg
- Echinocactus ottonis var. tenuispinus (Link & Otto) Pfeiff.
- Echinocactus ottonis f. tenuispinus (Link & Otto) Schelle
- Echinocactus tenuispinus Link & Otto
- Notocactus neo-ottoianus var. tenuispinus (Link & Otto) Y.Itô
- Notocactus tenuispinus (Link & Otto) Herter
- Notocactus ottonis var. uruguayensis (Arechav.) Frič
- Notocactus ottonis var. vencluianus Schütz
- Notocactus ruoffii N.Gerloff
- Notocactus minimus var. ruoffii (N.Gerloff) N.Gerloff & Neduchal
- Notocactus tenuispinus f. cristatus P.V.Heath
- Parodia amambayensis (Werderm.) Borg
- Parodia ottonis var. tortuosa (Link & Otto) N.P.Taylor
Parodia ottonis subs. horstii (F.Ritter) Hofacker
Cactaceae Consensus Init. 6: 12. 1998
- Parodia ottonis subs. horstii (F.Ritter) Hofacker
- Notocactus arechavaletae var. horstii F.Ritter
- Notocactus horstii F.Ritter
- Notocactus ottonis subs. horstii (F.Ritter) Doweld
- Parodia horstii (F.Ritter) N.P.Taylor
- Peronocactus horstii (F.Ritter) Doweld
- Peronocactus ottonis subs. horstii (F.Ritter) Doweld
- Wigginsia nothohorstii (F.Ritter) Doweld
- Notocactus horstii f. muglianus K.Herm
- Notocactus horstii f. purpureiflorus (F.Ritter) K.Herm
- Notocactus horstii f. purpureus (F.Ritter) K.Herm
- Notocactus purpureus F.Ritter
- Notocactus muegelianus T.Engel
Description: Notocactus ottonis var. paraguayensis (firstly described as Echinocactus ottonis var. paraguayensis by Heese in 1905) is a local or morphological form of the widespread and variable Parodia ottonis , but not sufficiently differentiated and considered merely a local variant of the latter (if not the same). Notocactus ottonis var. paraguayensis is at most a race of Parodia ottonis . The key difference by which the two were separated, namely the ribs less rounded, almost acute and the longer reddish-brown spines, appear to fall within the natural variation of Parodia ottonis and it should be synonymized with the latter. The plants are also slightly smaller than the type of the species.
Stem: 48-60 mm wide, 35-50 mm tall, clumping darker green and can get deep purplish to maroon during winter dormancy, though this colour can be retained if grown in sufficient light. However the new growth is green but will soon darken to match the older epidermis.
Ribs: 8 to 9, deeply cut, vertical, up to 6 mm hight, maximum width at the base 12-18 mm.
Areoles: 4-5 mm in diameter, illiptical to round, 10 to 16 mm apart.
Central spines: 3, light brown to reddish, 12 to 20 mm long, the lowest the longest.
Radial spines: c. 9 light brown, reddish-brown, or yellowish.
Flowers: 37 to 40 mm long, 48 to 57 mm wide, deep yellow, with a slight reddish stripes; Inner perianth segments to 25 mm long. Corolla tube with green scales, axils with wool and 2-3 dark brown bristles (10 mm long). Style yellow, 2 mm in diameter, 22 to 24 mm long. Stigma 4 mm Ø, lobes 11, 3 to 4 mm long, purple. Stamens to 25 mm long, at the level of the stigma, above yellow, orange below, and red- purple at the base. Anther intensely yellow.
Subspecies, varieties, forms and cultivars of plants belonging to the Parodia ottonis group
- Notocactus arechavaletae (Speg. ex Arechav.) Herter: The differences with other Parodia ottonis are minimal and most botanist agree on the fact that both should all be included in the P. ottonis. Distribution: Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul) and Uruguay (Artigas, Rivera).
- Notocactus arechavaletae var. limiticola F.Ritter: has the tendency to produce basal suckers on the lateral roots. Distribution: Livramento, border with Uruguay, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
- Notocactus arechavaletae var. rubescens F.Ritter: has redder stems in arid conditions and merging into typical green plants in cultivation. Distibution: North of Carazinha, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
- Notocactus horstii f. muglianus K.Herm: has areoles more woolly and larger to 10 mm in diameter, flowers orange red to salmon red, and stamens coloured like the petals. Distribution: Candelaria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
- Notocactus muegelianus T.Engel: this is the transitional form between the yellowish-orange and purple forms of Parodia ottonis subs. horstii. Distribution: Candelaria, Rio Grande do Sul
- Notocactus ottonis var. paraguayensis (Haage jr.) A.Berger ex Backeb.: has the ribs less rounded, almost acute and red spines. Distribution: Cordillera, and Misiones, Paraguay.
- Notocactus ottonis var. tenebrosus n.n.: has dark green stems with 8-10 radial spines and 1 darker central spines, flowers are bright satiny yellow.
- Notocactus ottonis var. vencluianus Schütz: has flowers and anthers red. Petals variously shades with peach, salmon, pink-red, vermilion and purple. Distribution: It is a cultivar originated from (habitat?) seed sown in a Czech nurser.
- Parodia ottonis (Lehm.) N.P.Taylor: (subsp. ottonis) has globular flattened stems rarely exceeding 6 cm in diameter, only 10 ribs, and 3-4 central spines. Distribution: southern Brazil, Uruguay, and Argentina.
- Parodia ottonis subs. horstii (F.Ritter) Hofacker: has stems often to 15 cm in diameter, 12-16 ribs, and 1-4 central spines. Flowers yellowish-orange, pink ot violet-purple. Distribution: Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
- Parodia ottonis var. tortuosa (Link & Otto) N.P.Taylor: has a very large body (13-18 cm), small flower (25 mm long and 25-50 mm in width) and its spines are almost equal. Distribution Brazil and Uruguay.
Bibliography: Major references and further lectures
1) William Taylor Marshall, Thor Methven Bock, Nathaniel Lord Britton “Cactaceae, with illustrated keys of all tribes, sub-tribes and genera” Theophrastus Publishers, 1941
2) Notocactus ottonis var. paraguayensis in: INTERNOTO AK1a February 1986
3) Notocactus ottonis var. paraguayensis retrieved 14 March 2016 from <http://www.s245090340.online.de/ug/gymnocephalus/ottonis/181-notocactus-ottonis-var-paraguayensis-haage-jr-1896-berger-ex-backeberg-1959.html>
Cultivation and Propagation: Parodia ottonis is a summer grower species easy to grow and to bloom. It makes a very suitable indoor plants for any luminous windowsills.
Growth rate: It is a moderately fast growing and easily flowering species.
Soil: Use mineral well permeable substratum with little organic matter (peat, humus), plants may become too elongated if compost is too rich.
Repotting: Re-pot every 2 years. Use pot with good drainage.
Fertilization: It grows much faster with a low nitrogen content fertilizer in spring and summer.
Watering: Requires careful watering to keep plant compact. Water sparingly from March till October, the thin, fibrous roots suffer if there is humidity, therefore the plant should be watered only when the surrounding terrain is dry. Keep dry as soon as the temperature starts dropping in October and keep it perfectly dry in winter at temperatures from 5 to 15 degrees centigrade.
Hardiness: They need to be kept in a cool place during winter rest and are somewhat resistant to frost if kept on the dry side prior to, and during, cold weather ( they are hardy to -5 C ° C, for short periods). Although it is one of the easier Parodia to grow, it tends to rot in winter during the resting phase, if kept wet. In the rest period no high atmospheric humidity!!
Sun Exposure: Requires full sun in winter and some protection in summer, its colour tends to richer and darker when grown in light shade.
Uses: It is an excellent plant for container growing. It always looks good and stays small.
Pests & diseases: It may be attractive to a variety of insects, but plants in good condition should be nearly pest-free, particularly if they are grown in a mineral potting-mix, with good exposure and ventilation. Nonetheless, there are several pests to watch for:
- Red spiders: Red spiders may be effectively rubbed up by watering the infested plants from above.
- Mealy bugs: Mealy bugs occasionally develop aerial into the new growth among the wool with disfiguring results, but the worst types develop underground on the roots and are invisible except by their effects.
- Scales: Scales are rarely a problem.
- Rot: Rot is only a minor problem with cacti if the plants are watered and “aired” correctly. If they are not, fungicides won't help all that much. To prevent rottenness it is also advisable to surround its root neck by very rough sand or grit, this help a fast water drainage.
Propagation: Almost exclusively by seed. Cutting scions from a flourishing plant may also been used to propagate this plant.
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