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Accepted Scientific Name: Parodia stuemeri (Werderm.) Backeb.
Cactus (Sint-Amandsberg) iv. 57 (1934); et in Kakteenfreund, iv. 50 (1935); GrayHerb. Card Cat., Issue 147.
Origin and Habitat: Parodia stuemeri is common in the Argentinian province of Salta and Jujuy.
Altitude range: This species grows at altitudes of 2300 to 3100 meters.
Habitat and Ecology: This species grows in prepuna, in riparian vegetation on light clayish soil among rocks debris strewn around and on cliffs. The plants are often covered in grey dust which made it hard to spot and grow together with Parodia nivosa, Pyrrhocactus umadeave, Gymnocalycium spegazzinii, Gymnocalycium horizonthalonium, Rebutia minuscula, Lobivia haematantha, Trichocereus atacamensis and various Opuntia spp. Apart from the cacti, there are only lichens, mosses, poor thin scrub and clumps of Abromietiella breviflora. Although Parodia stuemeri has a relatively restricted range, the population seems to be stable and not subject to any major threat.
- Parodia stuemeri (Werderm.) Backeb.
Parodia stuemeri (Werderm.) Backeb.
Cactus (Sint-Amandsberg) iv. 57 (1934); et in Kakteenfreund, iv. 50 (1935);
- Parodia stuemeri (Werderm.) Backeb.
- Parodia gutekunstiana Backeb.
- Parodia rubricentra Backeb. in Backeb. & F.M.Knuth
- Parodia rubrispina U.Köhler
Parodia stuemeri var. tilcarensis (Werderm. & Backeb.) Borg
- Parodia stuemeri var. tilcarensis (Werderm. & Backeb.) Borg
- Bolivicactus tilcarensis (Werderm. & Backeb.) Doweld
- Echinocactus stuemeri var. tilcarensis Werderm. & Backeb.
- Parodia tilcarensis (Werderm. & Backeb.) Backeb.
- Parodia carminata Backeb. in Backeb. & F.M.Knuth
- Parodia friciana F.H.Brandt
- Parodia gokrauseana Heinrich
- Parodia jujuyana Frič ex Subik, Pazout & Valnicek
- Parodia pseudostuemeri Backeb.
- Parodia schuetziana Jajó
- Parodia scoparia F.Ritter
- Parodia setosa Backeb.
- Parodia tilcarensis var. gigantea (Krainz) Backeb.
- Parodia tumbayana Weskamp
Description: Parodia stuemeri firstly described as Echinocactus stuemeri by Erich Werdermann in 1931, is a distinct solitary species that at times may form small or huge clumps. However the plant occurs in several places, and is quite variable both in habitat and in our collections too. The spines range from dusky-yellow to nearly black, and flowers may be yellowish, orange or reddish, to 4 cm long .
Stem: Globular to cylindrical up to 20 cm tall and 15 cm in diameter, dull green. Apex with whitish or brownish felt.
Ribs: Approx. 20 or more, vertical or slightly coiling, flattened, tuberculate. Tubercles conical.
Areoles: White, woolly in youth.
Central spines: 4 up to 25 mm long, rigid, stiff, needle-like, terete to slightly curved, thick below, white-grey to dusky-yellow to copper red, to dark brown to violet-grey to black (usually darker at apex), becoming grey with age. Some of them occasionally show a more or less curved tip.
Radial spines: Up to 25 thinner, needle-like, whitish but darker basally, interlacing, 10 to 1.15 mm (rarely to 20 mm) long.
Flowers: 3-4 cm long and broad, campanulate to funnel-shaped, yellowish
orange or reddish, pericarpels and floral tubes with white wool.
Blooming season: This species is one of the last Parodias to flower each year - sometimes as late as late summer or early autumn.
Subspecies, varieties, forms and cultivars of plants belonging to the Parodia stuemeri group
- Parodia stuemeri (Werderm.) Backeb.: up to 20 cm tall and 15 cm Ø. Spines dusky-yellow to nearly black. Flowers yellowish, orange or reddish. Distribution: Argentina Northwest (Jujuy, Salta).
- Parodia stuemeri var. tilcarensis (Werderm. & Backeb.) Borg: Distribution: Argentina Northwest (Jujuy, Salta).
- Parodia tilcarensis var. gigantea (Krainz) Backeb.: Stem much elongated or cylindrical up to 30 cm tall and 5-6 cm in diameter. Distribution Argentina (Salta)
Bibliography: Major references and further lectures
1) Edward Anderson “The Cactus family” Timber Press, Incorporated, 2001
2) James Cullen, Sabina G. Knees, H. Suzanne Cubey "The European Garden Flora Flowering Plants: A Manual for the Identification of Plants Cultivated in Europe, Both Out-of-Doors and Under Glass" Cambridge University Press, 11/August /2011
3) Lowry, M. & Ortega-Baes, P. 2013. Parodia stuemeri. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T152294A620110. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2013-1.RLTS.T152294A620110.en. Downloaded on 21 October 2016.
4) David R Hunt; Nigel P Taylor; Graham Charles, International Cactaceae Systematics Group. "The New Cactus Lexicon" dh books, 2006
5) Parodia stuemeri in “The Chileans '93” Volume 15, number 51
6) “Monatsschrift der Deutschen Kakteen-Gesellschaft”. volume 3, 1931.
7) Curt Backeberg, Frederik Marcus Knuth “Kaktus-ABC”. 1936.
Cultivation and Propagation: It is relatively easy to grow on its own roots.
Soil: Grow it in an open sandy-gritty cactus compost.
Pots: It needs a relatively shallow pot to accommodate its fibrous roots and provide a very good drainage. It may stay in the same pot for many years.
Watering: Water in moderation, it prefer a completely dry place during winter. Mature individuals easily rot and die especially after planting so be extremely cautious with watering. Keep dry in winter or when night temperatures remain below 10° C. Water it less than average if in bigger pots.
Special need: Provide very good ventilation. Nearly all problems occur as a result of overwatering and poor ventilation, especially when weather conditions are dull and cool or very humid.
Fertilization: Feed them once during the growing season with a fertilizer specifically formulated for cactus and succulents (high potash fertilizer with a dilute low nitrogen), including all micro nutrients and trace elements diluted to ½ the strength recommended on the label. They thrive in poor soils and need a limited supplies of fertilizer to avoid the plants developing excess vegetation, which is easily attacked by fungal diseases.
Exposure: It will do its best with lots of sun and become stressed with inadequate light which could result in poor growth and unnatural shape.
Hardiness: It likes warmth (recommended minimum winter temperature 5° C) however plants kept perfectly dry can can survive low temperatures, approx. -5°, but for safe cultivation it is best to avoid freezing temperatures.
Use: This is a good pot plant suited for a non heated green house. It can be also cultivated outdoors in raised beds, terraces if sheltered from winter rain. This cactus continues to be, a particular prize among collectors
Pests & diseases: These cacti may be attractive to a variety of insects, but plants in good condition should be nearly pest-free, particularly if they are grown in a mineral potting-mix, with good exposure and ventilation. Nonetheless, there are several pests to watch for:
- Red spiders: Red spiders may be effectively rubbed up by misting the plants from above.
- Mealy bugs: Mealy bugs occasionally they develop aerial into the new leaves and flowers with disfiguring results, but the worst types develop underground on the roots and are invisible except by their effects.
- Rot: Rot is only a minor problem if the plants are watered and “aired” correctly. If they are not, fungicides won't help all that much.
Propagation: Seeds. The seeds can be sown in pots of fine, well-drained sandy soil, any time during the spring when temperatures are warm. Cover the seeds with a fine layer of grit and water from below with a fungicide to prevent damping off. For the 1-2 weeks cover the pots with a sheet of glass/clear perspex to keep the humidity levels high. Remove the glass and replace it with light shade-cloth and mist once or twice a day for the next two weeks after which most seeds should have germinated. From then on mistings can be reduced to every second and then every third day as the little plants grow.
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