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Accepted Scientific Name: Matucana haynei (Otto) Britton & Rose
Cactaceae (Britton & Rose) 3: 102, fig. 109. 1922 Britton & Rose
Origin and Habitat: Garden origin (Nursery produced cultivar)
Matucana haynei (Otto) Britton & Rose
Cactaceae (Britton & Rose) 3: 102, fig. 109. 1922
- Matucana haynei (Otto) Britton & Rose
- Arequipa haynii (Otto) Krainz in Krainz
- Borzicactus haynei (Otto) Kimnach
- Cereus haynii (Otto) Croucher
- Echinocactus haynii Otto
- Matucana blancii Backeb.
- Borzicactus haynei var. blancii (Backeb.) Donald
- Matucana breviflora Rauh & Backeb. in Backeb.
- Borzicactus haynei var. breviflora (Rauh & Backeb.) Donald
- Matucana multicolor var. breviflora (Rauh & Backeb.) F.Ritter
- Matucana calocephala Skarupke
- Borzicactus calocephalus (Skarupke) Donald
- Matucana cereoides Rauh & Backeb. in Backeb.
- Matucana crinifera F.Ritter
- Matucana crinifera f. cristata hort.
- Matucana elongata Rauh & Backeb. in Backeb.
- Matucana haynei var. elongata (Rauh & Backeb.) F.Ritter
- Matucana haynei var. erectipetala Rauh & Backeb.
- Arequipa haynii var. erectipetala (Rauh & Backeb.) Krainz in Krainz
- Matucana megalantha F.Ritter
- Borzicactus aurantiacus var. megalanthus (F.Ritter) Donald
- Matucana multicolor Rauh & Backeb. in Backeb.
- Matucana supertexta F.Ritter
- Matucana variabilis Rauh & Backeb. in Backeb.
- Borzicactus variabilis (Rauh & Backeb.) Donald
- Matucana variabilis var. fuscata Rauh & Backeb.
- Matucana villarica n.n.
- Matucana winteri F.Ritter
- Matucana yanganucensis Rauh & Backeb. in Backeb.
Matucana haynei subs. herzogiana (Backeb.) Mottram
Cactaceae Consensus Init. 3: 11. 1997
- Matucana haynei subs. herzogiana (Backeb.) Mottram
- Matucana herzogiana Backeb.
- Matucana herzogiana var. perplexa Backeb.
- Borzicactus haynei var. perplexa (Backeb.) Donald
- Matucana haynei var. perplexa hort.
Matucana haynei subs. hystrix (Rauh & Backeb.) Mottram
Cactaceae Consensus Init. 3: 11. 1997
- Matucana haynei subs. hystrix (Rauh & Backeb.) Mottram
- Borzicactus haynei var. hystrix (Rauh & Backeb.) Donald
- Matucana hystrix Rauh & Backeb.
- Matucana multicolor var. hystrix (Rauh & Backeb.) F.Ritter
- Matucana haynei subs. hystrix var. atrispina Rauh & Backeb.
- Borzicactus haynei var. atrispina (Rauh & Backeb.) Donald
- Matucana hystrix var. atrispina Rauh & Backeb.
Matucana haynei subs. myriacantha (Vaupel) Mottram
Cactaceae Consensus Init. 3: 11. 1997
- Matucana haynei subs. myriacantha (Vaupel) Mottram
- Arequipa myriacantha Britton & Rose
- Borzicactus myriacanthus (Vaupel) Donald
- Borzicactus weberbaueri var. myriacanthus (Vaupel) Donald
- Echinocactus myriacanthus Vaupel
- Matucana myriacantha (Vaupel) Buxb.
- Submatucana myriacantha (Vaupel) Backeb.
- Matucana comacephala F.Ritter
- Matucana huarinensis hort.
- Matucana huarinensis var. brevispina hort.
- Matucana huarinensis var. brunispina hort.
- Matucana myriacantha f. purpureoalba (F.Ritter) Lodé
- Matucana purpureoalba F.Ritter
- Matucana myriacantha f. roseoalba (hort., F.Ritter) Lodé
- Matucana roseoalba hort., F.Ritter
Description: The standard Matucana crinifera is a globe-shaped cactus densely covered by yellowish-white, hair-like spines and showy blossoms, white at the bottom red on top. The crest form (Matucana crinifera f. cristata)- despite to its beauty - is still very rare and sought after by collectors, for it display of colours.
Stem: Fan-shaped, 7-10 cm thick, up to 30 cm high, green, densely covered and almost invisible under the numerous spines.
Ribs: Strongly tuberculate up to 6 mm hight.
Areoles: Set closely together, light brown, about 5 mm long and 3-5 mm wide 3 to 5 mm apart with an abundance of wool when young, but without any when old.
Radial spines: 15 to 25 setaceous up to 5 cm long, white to yellowish or even brown or blackish.
Flowers: 5 to 7 cm long, tubular and slightly zygomorphic, yellowish orange, red to crimson or magenta at the end of the petals and white below. Floral tube 3-4 cm long and 5 mm thick. Filaments basally white and reddish toward the tips. The style is orange to golden yellow , with 5 pale green to golden yellow stigma lobes.
Fruits: Spherical, about 8 mm in diameter, greenish-brown when ripe.
Seeds: 1,2 mm wide, dark and rough textured.
Subspecies, varieties, forms and cultivars of plants belonging to the Matucana haynei group
- Matucana comacephala F.Ritter: (subs. myriacantha) has solitary globular to cylindrical stems with cream-coloured spines and large pink to sometimes orange-red blossoms. Distribution: Ancash, Cordillera blanca, Peru.
- Matucana crinifera F.Ritter: (subs. haynei) stem densely covered by yellowish-white, hair-like spines and showy blossoms, white at the bottom pinkir to red on top. Distribution: Machac, Ancash, Peru.
- Matucana crinifera f. cristata hort.: (subs. haynei) Crested form.
- Matucana haynei (Otto) Britton & Rose: (subs. haynei) has stems to 30 cm high and at least 30 spines: Distribution: Matucana.
- Matucana haynei subs. herzogiana (Backeb.) Mottram: usually less than 10 cm high with relatively few, more or less curved, setaceous spines. Distribution: Cordillera Negra.
- Matucana haynei subs. hystrix (Rauh & Backeb.) Mottram: has cylindrical stems to 30 cm high, 4 distinct dark brown central spines, and numerous radials. Distribution: Nazca, Ica, and Lucanas, Ayacucho.
- Matucana haynei subs. hystrix var. atrispina Rauh & Backeb.: like Matucana haynei subs. hystrix but with more robust blackish spines, ash-grey and conspicuously swollen at the base. Distribution: Nazca to Lucamas and adjacent areas, southern Peru.
- Matucana haynei subs. myriacantha (Vaupel) Mottram: has very short stems, rarely more than 8 cm high, and as many as 10 central spines and 25 radials. Distibution: above Balsas, Cajamarca.
- Matucana herzogiana var. perplexa Backeb.: similar to Matucana haynei subs. herzogiana, but with more numerous and longer spines. The flowers are bright red and zygomorphic. Distribution: Cordillera Negra, Peru
- Matucana multicolor Rauh & Backeb. in Backeb.: has multicoloured spination. The central spines ranges from amber, to black-brown, to black-violet, or nearly white. Distribution: Nazca-Puquio road at about 4,100m ASL.
- Matucana myriacantha f. roseoalba (hort., F.Ritter) Lodé: (subs. myriacantha) has dense cream coloured spines cover almost completely the plants body. Flowers are glossy pink and white, tubular and zigomorphyc.
- Matucana variabilis Rauh & Backeb. in Backeb.: (subs. haynei) It has thin variable spines (cream to amber coloured) suggesting the epithet. Distribution: Ancash, Peru.
- Matucana villarica n.n.: Brewster County, Texas, USA.
- Matucana yanganucensis Rauh & Backeb. in Backeb.: (subs. haynei) Same as Matucana haynei.
Bibliography: Major references and further lectures
1) Edward Anderson “The Cactus family” Timber Press, Incorporated, 2001
2) Nathaniel Lord Britton, Joseph Nelson Rose “Cactaceae: Descriptions and Illustrations of Plants of the Cactus Family” vol. 4 The Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington 1923
3) James Cullen, Sabina G. Knees, H. Suzanne Cubey "The European Garden Flora Flowering Plants: A Manual for the Identification of Plants Cultivated in Europe, Both Out-of-Doors and Under Glass" Cambridge University Press, 11/Aug/2011
4) David R Hunt; Nigel P Taylor; Graham Charles; International Cactaceae Systematics Group. "The New Cactus Lexicon" dh books, 2006 ISBN 0953813444, 9780953813445
Cultivation and Propagation: Although regarded as a choice and difficult plant is not too difficult in a greenhouse, although grows quite slowly. It is sometime seen as a grafted plant but grows very well on its own roots too.
Soil: Use mineral well permeable mineral soil with little organic matter (peat, humus).
Exposure: They need a good amount of light shade to full sun this help to keep the plants healthy, although slow growth.
Watering: Water sparingly from March till October (weekly during summertime, if the weather is sunny enough) , with a little fertilizer added. Less or no water during cold winter months, or when night temperatures remain below 10° to prevent root loss. It is sensitive to overwatering (rot prone).
Fertilization: Feeding may not be necessary at all if the compost is fresh then, feed in summer only if the plant hasn't been repotted recently. Do not feed the plants from September onwards as this can cause lush growth which can be fatal during the darker cold months.
Hardiness: Keep perfectly dry in winter at temperatures from 5 to 15 degrees centigrade. (but it is relatively cold resistant and hardy to -5° C, or possibly colder for short periods) In the rest period no high atmospheric humidity!! (Temperature Zone: USDA 9-11)
Crested growth: Unlike 'monstrose' varieties of plants, where the variation from normal growth is due to genetic mutation, crested growth can occur on normal plants. Sometimes it's due to variances in light intensity, or damage, but generally the causes are unknown. A crested plant may have some areas growing normally, and a cresting plant that looks like a brain, may revert to normal growth for no apparent reason. If you have any of the crested part left you need to remove the normal growth and leave the crested part behind this will need to be done regularly.
Propagation: Grafting or cuttings. Plants are usually grafted onto column-shaped cacti but proved to be able to produce their own roots if degrafted. Cuttings will take root in a minimum temperature of 20° C (but better in hot weather). Cuttings of healthy shoots can be taken in the spring and summer. Cut the stem with a sharp, sterile knife, leave the cutting in a warm, dry place for a week or weeks (depending on how thick the cutting is) until a callus forms over the wound. Once the callus forms, the cutting may be inserted in a container filled with firmed cactus potting mix topped with a surface layer of coarse grit. They should be placed in the coarse grit only; this prevents the cut end from becoming too wet and allows the roots to penetrate the rich compost underneath. The cuttings should root in 2 to 6 weeks. Large crested piece must be placed on the soil surface without burying the plant base down in the soil.
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