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Origin and Habitat: Arizona (Pinal and Santa Catalina Mountains) and, probably, adjacent Sonora, Mexico.
Altitude: 700 - 2000 metres above sea level.
*Habitat and Ecology: Echinocereus bonkerae occurs in sonoran stony desert grassland, desert upland and in chaparral shrublands on mineral, sandy-loamy soil. It also occurs in rocky slopes and pinyon-juniper woodlands. This species is common and often abundant where it occurs and there are no major threats affecting it.
- Echinocereus fasciculatus var. bonkerae Thornb. & Bonker
Echinocereus fasciculatus var. bonkerae Thornb. & Bonker
Cacti Ariz. ed. 3. 22. 1969 L.D.Benson
- Echinocereus fasciculatus var. bonkerae Thornb. & Bonker
- Echinocereus bonkerae Thornb. & Bonker
- Echinocereus boyce-thompsonii var. bonkerae (Thornb. & Bonker) Peebles
- Echinocereus fendleri var. bonkerae (Thornb. & Bonker) L.D.Benson
- Echinocereus bonkerae var. apachensis (W.Blum & Rutow) A.D.Zimmerman
- Echinocereus apachensis W.Blum & Rutow
Echinocereus fasciculatus (Engelm. ex B.D.Jacks.) L.D.Benson
Cacti Ariz. d. 3, 21, 32. 1969
- Echinocereus fasciculatus (Engelm. ex B.D.Jacks.) L.D.Benson
- Cactus fasciculatus (Engelm. ex B.D.Jacks.) Kuntze
- Chilita fasciculata (Engelm. ex B.D.Jacks.) Buxb.
- Ebnerella fasciculata (Engelm. ex B.D.Jacks.) Buxb.
- Echinocereus engelmannii subs. fasciculatus (Engelm. ex S.Watson) W.Blum & Mich.Lange
- Echinocereus fendleri var. fasciculatus (Engelm. ex B.D.Jacks.) N.P.Taylor
- Mammillaria fasciculata Engelm. ex B.D.Jacks.
- Neomammillaria fasciculata (Engelm. ex B.D.Jacks.) Britton & Rose
- Echinocereus abbeae S.H.Parsons
- Echinocereus robustus (Peebles) Peebles
Echinocereus fasciculatus var. boyce-thompsonii (Orcutt) L.D.Benson
Cacti Ariz. ed. 3: 21 1969.
- Echinocereus fasciculatus var. boyce-thompsonii (Orcutt) L.D.Benson
ENGLISH: Bonker Hedgehog
Description: Echinocereus fasciculatus var. bonkerae (Syn: Echinocereus bonkerae) is a distinguishing variety which differs in having spines not more than 10 mm long and the stems not obscured by the armament. It is a particularly beautiful plant in flower.
Remarks: Echinocereus bonkerae is a very variable and poorly defined species, frequently lumped with Echinocereus fendleri or Echinocereus fasciculatus, and it is not always identifiable in the field. All this three species vary from short-spined to long-spined. Populations of Echinocereus bonkerae at the lowest altitude for the species have taller stems and unusually long, slender central spines (to 10 cm); they have recently been named Echinocereus apachensis W.Blum & Rutow.
Habit: It forms low, loose mounds of 5-15(-35) stems up to 20 cm tall , width 1 metre branching at or before sexual maturation.
Stems: Ovoid to Cylindrical, mostly erect, green, 12-20(-30) cm long, 4-7,5 cm in diameter, with spines not obscuring the stems.
Ribs: (11-)12-18(-20), not distinctly tuberculate, crests slightly undulate.
Areoles: 8-20 mm apart.
Central spine: 1 to 3 (often absent) per areole, very short, straight, erect, rigid, stout, mostly descending, white or pale grey, often brown to black especially at bases or tips, (2-)5-7(-10) mm long. (The long-spined var. apachensis has longer central spines sometimes curved or twisted)
Radial spines: (9-)11-14(-16), whitish, yellowish or brown, often becoming grey, spreading to almost pectinately arranged, all straight, (5-)12-18(-20) mm long.
Flowers: Borne on the upper half of the stems, broadly funnelform, magenta to reddish purple, 5-7 cm long and 4-9 cm in diameter. Flower tube 12-20 long 10-30 mm in cross section with hairs up to 1 mm long. Inner perianth segments deep magenta (to dark purple) with darker midstripes, basally green to very dark purple, 20-60 × 8.5-20 mm, tips relatively thin and delicate. Anthers yellow; nectar chamber 2-4 mm.
Blooming season: Spring (in habitat Mar-May); fruiting 2 months after flowering.
Fruits: Globose, 15-25 mm, green, becoming red or orange red, fleshy. pulp white or pale pink.
Chromosome number: 2n = 22.
Subspecies, varieties, forms and cultivars of plants belonging to the Echinocereus fasciculatus group
- Echinocereus bonkerae var. apachensis (W.Blum & Rutow) A.D.Zimmerman: has taller stems and unusually long, slender central spines (to 10 cm). Distribution it is found at the lowest altitude for the species.
- Echinocereus fasciculatus (Engelm. ex B.D.Jacks.) L.D.Benson: (subsp. fasciculatus) It has grayish central spines that are 2-7,5 cm. long.
- Echinocereus fasciculatus var. bonkerae Thornb. & Bonker: has fewer stems, and is shorter. Central spines are less than 10 mm long, and grayish-white. Flowers are deep purple. Distribution: Arizona and, probably, adjacent Sonora, Mexico
- Echinocereus fasciculatus var. boyce-thompsonii (Orcutt) L.D.Benson: has straw (yellow-tan), colored, and longer central central spines, that are downward pointing , and 2-10 cm long. The flowers are a very deep purple.
Bibliography: Major references and further lectures
1) Thomas Henry Kearney, Robert Hibbs Peebles “Flowering Plants and Ferns of Arizona” U.S. Government Printing Office, 1942
2) Edward Anderson “The Cactus family” Timber Press, Incorporated, 2001
3) ames Cullen, Sabina G. Knees, H. Suzanne Cubey "The European Garden Flora Flowering Plants: A Manual for the Identification of Plants Cultivated in Europe, Both Out-of-Doors and Under Glass" Cambridge University Press, 11/Aug/2011
4) David R Hunt; Nigel P Taylor; Graham Charles; International Cactaceae Systematics Group. "The New Cactus Lexicon" dh books, 2006
5) Thomas Henry Kearney, Robert Hibbs Peebles “Arizona Flora” University of California Press, 1960
6) Brian Lamb “Letts guide to cacti of the world” Letts, 17/ott/1991
7) Baker, M. 2013. Echinocereus bonkerae. In: IUCN 2013. “IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.” Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 02 January 2014.
8) Echinocereus bomkerae in: "Flora of North America" <http://www.efloras.org> Downloaded on 02 January 2014
9) Albert Michael Powell, James F. Weedin “Cacti of the Trans-Pecos and Adjacent Areas” Texas Tech University Press, 2004
Cultivation and Propagation: It grows rather slowly and is sensitive to over-watering (rot prone).
Watering: It needs very good drainage to avoid rotting, but requires more moisture than true desert cacti, to grow and produce flowers. Keep drier and cool in winter.
Exposure: It needs full sun.
Hardiness: It's cold resistant to -10° (or less, depending on clones) for short periods of time.
Uses: It is a fine plant for a rock garden or container, and contrasts well with agaves, yuccas, and low-growing flowering plants. It will show its flowers only provided with an adequate winter rest period.
Propagation: Seeds, can also be grown from cuttings, as it branches from the base.
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