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AA 279, S Capilla Tuya, Dep. Paraguari, Paraguay, 203 m.
Origin and Habitat: Echinopsis adolfofriedrichii is endemic to a small area between Asuncion and Encarnacion, on southeastern Paraguay.
Habitat and ecology: This species grows on rocky meadows, under low bushes or in full sun, together with other cacti, sometimes settled on termite mounds.
Flowers: The white funnel shaped-tubular flowers open at night and - like most species of Echinopsis - are pleasantly fragrant.
- Echinopsis adolfofriedrichii G.Moser
UKRAINIAN (Українська): Еxінопсис Адольфа Фрідріxа
Description: Echinopsis adolfofriedrichii is a striking Paraguayan cactus of restricted distribution. It is solitary or (rarely) forming clumps. The flowers, that opens at night, are white funnel-shaped, slender, and sweetly shented.
Derivation of specific name: The epithet 'adolfofriedrichii' was given by Austrian researcher cacti Günther Moser in honor of his colleague and countryman the Austrian photographer and cactus collectors Adolfo Maria Friedrich (1897-1987), who emigrated in 1925 to Brazil and settled in Paraguay 1930's.
Stems: Depressed globose or spherical, dull dark green, 7-15 cm high, 10-20 cm in diameter.
Ribs: 11-13, prominent, acute.
Areoles: White to grey, 1.5-2 cm apart.
Spines: Acicular, horn-coloured, honey-coloured or grey, with brown tips.
Central spines: 1-2.
Radial spines: 4-7.
Flowers: The white funnel shaped-tubular flowers open at night and - like most species of Echinopsis - are pleasantly fragrant. They are 18-20 cm long, and 10-13 cm in diameter.
Fruits: Globose, blackish green to brownish, very hairy, to 3 cm long and 2.5 cm in diameter.
Taxonomy: Some authors consider this taxon a local form of Echinopsis oxygona while others consider it a form of Echinopsis rhodacantha. E. oxygona has a wide distribution in Paraguay, Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay. The plants from Paraguay were named by Moser as Echinopsis adolfofriedrichii in 1982. He compared it to Echinopsis chacoana, another species found in Paraguay, but this is now known to be related to E. rhodacantha, a different lineage from E.
Bibliography: Major references and further lectures
1) Edward Anderson “The Cactus family” Timber Press, Incorporated, 2001
2) Orrell T. (custodian) (2016). ITIS Global: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (version Apr 2016). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 27th June 2016 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at www.catalogueoflife.org/col. Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
3) Urs Eggli, Leonard E. Newton “Etymological Dictionary of Succulent Plant Names” Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg 2010
4) Günther Moser “A new species of Echinopsis from Paraguay.” In: National Cactus and Succulent Journal. 37(2): 39–40.1982.
5) Günther Moser. “Kakteen: Adolfo Maria Friedrich und sein schönes Paraguay.” — Moser [Eigenverl.], 1985.
6) Graham Charles “Granny's Echinopsis” The Cactus Explorer, Number 8, May 2013 p 33 <http://www.cactusexplorers.org.uk/Explorer8/Cactus%20Explorer%208_complete.pdf>
7) Hunt, D., Taylor, N. and Charles, G. (compilers and editors). “The New Cactus Lexicon.” dh Books, Milborne Port, UK. 2006
8) Edward Anderson “The Cactus family” Timber Press, Incorporated, 2001
Cultivation and Propagation: Echinopsis adolfofriedrichii is extremely resistant to cultivation errors and the only thing that can kill this plant is cold. Nevertheless, it is appropriate to provide adequate growing conditions in order to obtain abundant blooms. It has very large fragrant nocturnal flowers and many plant lovers are willing to take care of it all year for one or a few magical nights with exotic charm.
Growth rate: It is a relatively rapidly growing species that will make large clumps given the best conditions.
Soils: It likes very porous standard cactus mix soil, but it is extremely adaptable to various growing media. Prefer a low pH compost, avoid substrata rich in limestone.
Repotting: This plant needs plenty of space for its roots, repotting should be done every other year or when the it has outgrown its pot. Use pot with good drainage.
Watering: Needs moderate to copious waterings in summer (it is more demanding than other cactus), but do not overwater, keep dry in winter at a minimum temperature of 0°C.
Fertilization: Feed with a high potassium fertilizer in summer.
Hardiness: Reputedly resistant to light frost if kept on the dry side prior to, and during, cold weather (hardy to -2 C ° C, or less for short periods). However warmth throughout the year will increase the grower's success (5°-8° C during rest season).
Exposition: The plant tolerates bright situations which encourages flowering and heavy spine production, but is likely to suffer from sun scorch or stunted growth if over exposed to direct sunlight during the hottest part of the day in summer. It grows well with filtered sunlight or afternoon shade.
Uses: It is an excellent plant for container growing. It look fine in a cold greenhouse and frame or outdoor in a rockery. It is also used as a rootstock for grafting delicate and slow growing cactus species.
Pests & diseases: It may be attractive to a variety of insects, but plants in good condition should be nearly pest-free, particularly if they are grown in a mineral potting-mix, with good exposure and ventilation. Nonetheless, there are several pests to watch for:
- Red spiders: Red spiders may be effectively rubbed up by watering the plants from above.
- Mealy bugs: Mealy bugs occasionally develop aerial into the new growth among the wool with disfiguring results, but the worst types develop underground on the roots and are invisible except by their effects.
- Scales: Scales are rarely a problem.
- Rot: This species is particularly easy and accommodating, seldom suffer of cryptogamic diseases. Rot it is only a minor problem with Echinopsis if the plants are watered and “aired” correctly.
Propagation: Division of larger clumps, direct sow after last frost. Seeds germinate in 7-14 days at 21-27° C in spring, remove gradually the glass cover as soon the plants will be well rooted (ca 1-2 weeks) and keep ventilated, no full sun for young plants! To make a cutting twist off a branch and permit it to dry out a couple of weeks, lay it on the soil and insert the stem end partially into the soil. Try to keep the cutting somewhat upright so that the roots are able to grow downward.
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