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Origin and Habitat: Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, Misiones, Argentina.
- Parodia schumanniana subs. claviceps (F.Ritter) Hofacker & P.J.Braun
Parodia schumanniana subs. claviceps (F.Ritter) Hofacker & P.J.Braun
Cactaceae Consensus Init. 6: 12. 1998
- Parodia schumanniana subs. claviceps (F.Ritter) Hofacker & P.J.Braun
Parodia schumanniana (Nicolai) F.H.Brandt
Kakteen Orch. Rundschau 1982(4): 62 (1982)
- Parodia schumanniana (Nicolai) F.H.Brandt
- Echinocactus schumannianus Nicolai
- Eriocactus schumannianus (Nicolai) Backeb.
- Eriocephala schumanniana (Nicolai) Y.Itô
- Malacocarpus schumannianus Britton & Rose
- Notocactus schumannianus (Nicolai) A.Berger
- Parodia ampliocostata (F.Ritter) F.H.Brandt
- Eriocactus ampliocostatus F.Ritter
- Notocactus ampliocostatus (F.Ritter) S.Theun.
- Notocactus schumannianus var. ampliocostatus (F.Ritter) S.Theun. ex Havlíček
- Notocactus schumannianus f. ampliocostatus (F.Ritter) Neduchal
- Parodia applanata (Werner Hoffm. & Backeb.) F.H.Brandt
- Parodia schwebsiana var. applanata Werner Hoffm. & Backeb.
- Parodia schwebsiana f. applanata (Werner Hoffm. & Backeb.) Krainz in Krainz
- Parodia grossei (K.Schum.) F.H.Brandt
- Chrysocactus grossei (K.Schum.) Y.Itô
- Echinocactus grossei K.Schum.
- Eriocactus grossei (K.Schum.) Backeb. ex Schaffnit
- Eriocephala grossei (K.Schum.) Y.Itô
- Malacocarpus grossei (Schum.) Britton & Rose
- Notocactus grossei (K.Schum.) A.Berger
- Parodia grossei var. aureispina (F.Ritter) F.H.Brandt
Description: Parodia schumanniana subs. claviceps (sometimes listed under its old name Eriocactus claviceps) is a smaller growing form of Parodia schumanniana that does not exceed 50 cm in height. It has attractive large sulphur yellow flowers in summer.
Habit: Plants solitary or clustering.
Stem: Depressed spherical, becoming cylindrical with age, green, to 10-50 cm high and 8-20 cm in diameter.
Ribs: 23-30 (fewer in immature specimens), well defined, straight, acute.
Areoles: Very woolly apically, later less so only 3-4 mm apart.
Spines: Needle-like, straight to slightly arched, pale yellow to brown or reddish, later grey.
Central spines: 1-3, sometimes absent 20-50 mm long.
Radial spines: 5 to 8.
Flowers: Lemon yellow to golden yellow, 4-4,5 cm long, 4,5-6,5 cm in diameter; pericarpels and floral tubes, about 3,2 cm long, densely clothed with wool and bristles.
Fruits: Globose to ovoid, brownish, with dense wool and bristles, dry at maturity, 1-1,5 cm in diameter.
Seeds: Bell shaped, 1-1,2 mm long 0,6-0,8 mm broad, widest at hilum, shiny nearly black.
Subspecies, varieties, forms and cultivars of plants belonging to the Parodia schumanniana
- Parodia ampliocostata (F.Ritter) F.H.Brandt: has more ribs, more spines, multiple central spines, of which the lowest one conspicuously longer and pale yellow anthers. Distribution: Cordillera de los Altos, Paraguarí, Paraguay.
- Parodia grossei (K.Schum.) F.H.Brandt: has stems to 1.7 m high and 30 cm thick, 3-7 long bristly white (or brownish) spines the longer one 4 cm long. Distribution: between Carepegua and southeast of the Cerro Acahay, Paraguarí, Paraguay.
- Parodia grossei var. aureispina (F.Ritter) F.H.Brandt: has stems to 1 m high and 20 cm thick, 8-11 long bristly golden yellow to reddish yellow spines the lowest the longer. Distribution: Cerro Acati, Colonia Indipendencia, Depart. Guairá and Cerro Pelado near Villarica.
- Parodia schumanniana (Nicolai) F.H.Brandt: up to 1,8 m tall, areoles 7-15 mm apart, and 0-1 central spine. Distribution: Paraguay and north-eastern Argentina.
- Parodia schumanniana subs. claviceps (F.Ritter) Hofacker & P.J.Braun: less than 50 cm tall, areoles only 3-4 mm apart, and 1-3 central spines. Distribution: Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
Bibliography: Major references and further lectures
1) Edward Anderson “The Cactus family” Timber Press, Incorporated, 2001
2) James Cullen, Sabina G. Knees, H. Suzanne Cubey "The European Garden Flora Flowering Plants: A Manual for the Identification of Plants Cultivated in Europe, Both Out-of-Doors and Under Glass" Cambridge University Press, 11/Aug/2011
3) Pin, A., Oakley, L., Larocca, J. & Machado, M. 2013. Parodia schumanniana. In: IUCN 2013. “IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.” Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 06 March 2014.
4) David Hunt, Nigel Taylor “The New Cactus Lexicon” DH Books, 2006
5) Friedrich Ritter “Kakteen in Suedamerika: Ergebnisse Meiner 20 Jaehrigen Feldforschungen” F. Ritter Selbstverlag, 1979
6) Krainz, Hans “Die Kakteen” Franckh'sche Verlagshandlung 1957-1975
7) Hiroshi Hirao “Colour encyclopaedia of cacti” Seibundo Shinkosha, 1979
8) Haustein, Erik. “Der Kosmos-Kakteenführer.” Kosmos / Gesellschaft der Naturfreunde., Stuttgart, 1983
9) Mariella Pizzetti, Giuseppe Mazza “Piante grasse: le cactacee” A. Mondadori, 1985
10) Roberto Kiesling, Omar E. Ferrari “Cien cactus argentinos” Editorial Albatros, 2005
11) Barbara Segall “Botanica: the illustrated A-Z of over 10,000 garden plants and how to cultivate them” Mynah, 1997
12) Hans Hecht “Cacti & succulents” Sterling Pub. Co., 1997
13) Urs Eggli, Leonard E. Newton “Etymological Dictionary of Succulent Plant Names” Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg 2010
14) [Ernst August Nicolai] “Echinocactus Schumannianus Nicolai” In: Monatsschrift für Kakteenkunde. 3:12, 175 1893
15) F. H. Brandt “Die Gliederung der Gattung Parodia Spegazzini.” In: Kakteen- und Orchideen-Rundschau. 7: 4, 62 1982
16) H. Quehl “Neuheiten (Fortsetzungund Schluß aus No. 3)”. In: Monatsschrift für Kakteenkunde. 9: 5 1899
Cultivation and Propagation: Frost Tolerant as low as -4°C (or possibly colder) but in cultivation it is best to avoid any frost when during the winter the temperature can go down to 2° C without any harm so long as the compost is very dry. During the summer it is best to keep the plants outside where the temperature can rise to over 30 C with no harm to the plant.
Allows good drainage and use a an open and free draining mineral compost that allows therefore roots to breath.
They like only a short winter's rest and should be kept almost completely dry during the winter months, If the soil is allowed to be dry for too long root loss could follow but equally the same result would occur if the plants are both wet and cold. From March onwards the plant will begin to grow and watering should be increased gradually until late May when the plant should be in full growth.
Water regularly during the summer so long as the plant pot is allowed to drain and not sit in a tray of water. During hot weather you may need to water the plants more frequently so long as the plant is actively growing. From late September watering should be reduced to force the plant to go in to a state of semi dormancy, by October you should be back in to the winter watering regime.
Need full sun avoiding only the harshest summer sun, if kept too dark they may become overly lush and could be prone to rotting due to over watering, they will also be shy to produce flowers.
Feeding may not be necessary at all if the compost is fresh then, feed in summer only if the plant hasn't been repotted recently. Do not feed the plants from September onwards as this can cause lush growth which can be fatal during the darker cold months.
Repotting should be done every other year or every three years, annual potting is not necessary. Do not be tempted to over pot as this will cause the unused compost to go stagnant and you may loose the plant.
Propagation: Seed sowing and cuttings.
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