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Origin and Habitat: Parodia oxycostata has a very wide range, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, as well as from Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay, Southern America (extent of occurrence 120,000 km2)
Altitude: It grows at elevations of up to 500 meters above sea level.
Habitat: The species is not very abundant, and grows in several fragmented subpopulatations mostly on rocky outcrops and stony fields, in grasslands or pampas. The generation length is 10 years. Parodia oxycostata and Parodia ottonis grow sympatrically in Rio Grande do Sul.
- Parodia oxycostata (Buining & Bredero) Hofacker
Parodia oxycostata (Buining & Bredero) Hofacker
Cactaceae Consensus Init. 6: 12. 1998
- Parodia oxycostata (Buining & Bredero) Hofacker
- Notocactus campestris F.Ritter
- Notocactus campestrensis F.Ritter
- Notocactus eurypleurus Prestlé
- Notocactus glaucinus F.Ritter
- Notocactus glaucinus f. densispinus (Bergner) N.Gerloff & Neduchal
- Notocactus glaucinus var. depressus F.Ritter
- Notocactus glaucinus var. ibicuiensis (Prestlé) N.Gerloff & Neduchal
- Notocactus ibicuiensis Prestlé
- Notocactus glaucinus var. incomptus (N.Gerloff) N.Gerloff & Neduchal
- Notocactus incomptus N.Gerloff
- Notocactus harmonianus F.Ritter
- Notocactus oxycostatus f. miniatispinus (F.Ritter) N.Gerloff
- Notocactus oxycostatus var. occidentalis N.Gerloff
- Notocactus oxycostatus f. securituberculatus (F.Ritter) N.Gerloff
- Notocactus securituberculatus F.Ritter
Parodia oxycostata subs. gracilis (F.Ritter) Hofacker
Cactaceae (Backeberg) 6: 12. 1998
- Parodia oxycostata subs. gracilis (F.Ritter) Hofacker
Description: Parodia oxycostata, better known as Notocactus oxycostatus, is a common attractive dwarf clumping cactus that flowers at an early age. This is one of the most variable species in the genus and has lots of unnecessary synonyms and comprises a multitude of different local forms. But where each form is linked to others by populations of plants with intermediate characteristics. This species is in cultivation with many cultivated and propagated forms.
Habit: Plants solitary, only rarely offsetting into small clusters in time.
Stem: Flattened globose to globose, grey-green, to 9 cm high and in diameter.
Ribs: 6-12, acute, with chinlike protrusions between the areoles.
Areoles: Round, white at first, later grey, then naked.
Spines: Reddish brown to bright yellow, becoming lighter with age, flattened, twisted.
Central spine: 1, pointing downward, upto 20 mm long.
Radial spines: Usually only 2, one pointing downward, 16-25 mm long, sometimes with as many as 8 additional small spines to 6 mm long.
Flowers: Borne several at a time apically, bell-fnnel shaped to sometimes urn shaped, yellow, to 1 cm long and 4,5 cm in diameter; pericarpels and floral tubes with scales, white wool, and reddish brown bristles in clusters. Stigma red.
Blooming season: Flowering occurs in summer through early fall and will bloom several times during warm weather.
Fruits: With yellowish grey wool and reddish brown bristles, 2,5-2,7 cm long.
Seeds: Helmet shaped, shiny black.
Subspecies, varieties, forms and cultivars of plants belonging to the Parodia oxycostata group
- Notocactus glaucinus F.Ritter: has a waxy bluish coating on the epidermis. Distribution: Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
- Notocactus glaucinus var. depressus F.Ritter: has flat light green stem and pink fruits. Distribution: Sao Francisco de Assis, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
- Notocactus oxycostatus var. occidentalis N.Gerloff: has flattened spherical stems, 20-50 mm tall and 30-60 mm wide with ca. 7 ribs. Radial spines 5-7. Central spine 1. Distribution: Central Paraguay (Cordillera, Paraguarí and Missiones).
- Notocactus oxycostatus f. securituberculatus (F.Ritter) N.Gerloff: has sharp bluish ribs that redden if exposed to strong sun light and under stress conditions. Distribution: Quevedos, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
- Parodia oxycostata (Buining & Bredero) Hofacker: has 6-7 ribs and reddish brown spines. Distribution: east of Sao Gabriel, Rio Grande do Sul.
- Parodia oxycostata subs. gracilis (F.Ritter) Hofacker: has 9-12 ribs and bright yellow spines. Distribution: near Santiago.
Bibliography: Major references and further lectures
1) Tony Mace “Notocactus: a review of the genus incorporating Brasilicactus, Eriocactus and Wigginsia” Editorial Board/National Cactus & Succulent Society, 1975
2) Edward Anderson “The Cactus family” Timber Press, Incorporated, 2001
3) James Cullen, Sabina G. Knees, H. Suzanne Cubey "The European Garden Flora Flowering Plants: A Manual for the Identification of Plants Cultivated in Europe, Both Out-of-Doors and Under Glass" Cambridge University Press, 11/Aug/2011
4) David R Hunt; Nigel P Taylor; Graham Charles; International Cactaceae Systematics Group. "The New Cactus Lexicon" dh books, 2006
5) Larocca, J. & Machado, M. 2013. Parodia oxycostata. In: IUCN 2013. "IUCN Red List of Threatened Species." Version 2013.1. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 29 October 2013.
6) H. Krainz “Die Kakteen: eine Gesamtdarstellung der eingeführten Arten nebst Anzucht- und Pflege-Anweisungen,” Parts 1-16” Franck, 1956
7) Friedrich Ritter “Kakteen in Suedamerika: Ergebnisse Meiner 20 Jaehrigen Feldforschungen” F. Ritter Selbstverlag, 1979
8) Haustein, Erik. “Der Kosmos-Kakteenführer.” Kosmos / Gesellschaft der Naturfreunde., Stuttgart, 1983
9) Mariella Pizzetti, Giuseppe Mazza “Copertina anteriore” A. Mondadori, 1985
Cultivation and Propagation: Parodia oxycostata is a summer grower species easy to grow and to bloom. It makes a very suitable indoor plants for any luminous windowsills.
Growth rate: It is a moderately fast growing and easily flowering species.
Soil: Use mineral well permeable substratum with little organic matter (peat, humus), plants may become too elongated if compost is too rich.
Repotting: Re-pot every 2 years. Use pot with good drainage.
Fertilization: It grows much faster with a low nitrogen content fertilizer in spring and summer.
Watering: Requires careful watering to keep plant compact. Water sparingly from March till October, the thin, fibrous roots suffer if there is humidity, therefore the plant should be watered only when the surrounding terrain is dry. Keep dry as soon as the temperature starts dropping in October and keep it perfectly dry in winter at temperatures from 5 to 15 degrees centigrade.
Hardiness: They need to be kept in a cool place during winter rest and are somewhat resistant to frost if kept on the dry side prior to, and during, cold weather ( they are hardy to -5 C ° C, for short periods). Although it is one of the easier Parodia to grow, it tends to rot in winter during the resting phase, if kept wet. In the rest period no high atmospheric humidity!!
Sun Exposure: Requires full sun in winter and some protection in summer, its colour tends to richer and darker when grown in light shade.
Uses: It is an excellent plant for container growing. It always looks good and stays small.
Pests & diseases: It may be attractive to a variety of insects, but plants in good condition should be nearly pest-free, particularly if they are grown in a mineral potting-mix, with good exposure and ventilation. Nonetheless, there are several pests to watch for:
- Red spiders: Red spiders may be effectively rubbed up by watering the infested plants from above.
- Mealy bugs: Mealy bugs occasionally develop aerial into the new growth among the wool with disfiguring results, but the worst types develop underground on the roots and are invisible except by their effects.
- Scales: Scales are rarely a problem.
- Rot: Rot is only a minor problem with cacti if the plants are watered and “aired” correctly. If they are not, fungicides won't help all that much. To prevent rottenness it is also advisable to surround its root neck by very rough sand or grit, this help a fast water drainage.
Propagation: Almost exclusively by seed. Cutting scions from a flourishing plant may also been used to propagate this plant.
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